Mission objective

1. To analyze the moon area and collect samples to find a new idea for point landing capability
2. To find a new technique to work in the lunar environment.
3. To perform some photographs of the investigated sites.

Apollo 12,  a manned spaceflight mission, was the 6th mission of the Apollo space mission program and the second manned spaceflight mission to land on the moon's surface. This Apollo mission was the first mission of the Apollo's "H" mission type. Apollo 12 mission was launched during a cloudy and rainy weather from the Kennedy space center, which is located in Florida (U.S.A). Apollo 12 was launched on 14th November 1969 at 16:22 UTC. The difference of launch interval between Apollo 11 mission and Apollo 12 mission, was just four months, also both the missions were successfully completed. 

The Apollo 12 mission was crewed by the three astronauts, The mission commander - Charles Pete Conrad, The command module Pilot - Richard F. Gordon and the Lunar module Pilot - Alan L. Bean. Apollo 12 was landed on the ocean of storms ( a huge ocean like deep area ). This area/Site on the moon is like a huge oval pit (concave shape) having a diameter of almost 2500 km. The Apollo 12 spaceflight was launched using Saturn V Rocket. The spaceflight was comprised of three main components/Parts, The Command Module (CM), The Service Module (SM) and the Lunar Module (LM). The Command module was designed to provide shelter to three crew members, for re-entry into earth's atmosphere and for the Splashdown purpose. The Service module was designed to supply electric power, Propulsion, Oxygen, Hydrogen, to store some eatables and other useful stuff. The Service module was fitted to the rear of the of the Command module. But the command module and the service module are generally counted as a single unit. For Apollo 12 mission, it was named as "Yankee Clipper". According to the normal procedure, before the re-entry of command module into earth's atmosphere, the service module was jettisoned ( release off) in the atmosphere at a safe distance and it burned up in the atmosphere.

During the lift-off of the Apollo 12 spacecraft, it suddenly got in contact with lighting but because of the advanced circuit technology it got discharged itself and also the circuit connected to the fuel cells scanned the overload current quickly and switched off the fuel cells to offline mode. (same as MCB - Main circuit breaker, used to protect electrical circuits and connected devices from overload or short circuit). The Lunar module (LM) had two units, the lower part or the descent stage, equipped with an engine used for landing on moon's surface. It was also provided with storage areas for storing equipment like a ladder, which helped the astronauts to step down on the moon's surface. When the astronauts were leaving from the moon's surface, the descent stage or the lower part served them as a launch platform for the ascent stage or the upper part. The structure of ascent stage was cylindrical in shape (High-quality Aluminium made ). The astronauts lived in this cabin and operated the functional and operational tasks from here. After the completion of the mission, the ascent stage was used to take back the astronauts to the orbit and the CSM.

When astronaut Charles Pete Conrad first stepped out on moon's surface, his first words were " Whoopie Man!! ". A good quality camera was needed and so taken up on the Apollo 12 spaceflight to improve the quality of images, videos and audio to be transmitted from moon to earth. But due to the direct positioning of the camera towards the sun's ray, it got damaged and hence the mission of transmitting the video coverage from the camera was aborted instantly. Apollo 12 spacecraft was successfully landed on the moon's surface just a few distances around the "Surveyor 3 Probe". 

Surveyor 3 was an unmanned third surveyor program sent to analyze the surface of the moon. The astronaut Bean and Conrad took some photos of the Surveyor 3 probe and removed some pieces of Surveyor 3 probe that were taken back to earth for some testing purpose. They collected some pieces of rocks and soil for testing and research in the laboratory of NASA. They also performed some experiments on solar wind flux, the magnetic field of the moon and relayed the collected data to NASA space research center. After the completion of all the experiments and tasks, astronaut Bean and Conrad rejoined astronaut Gordon in the orbit. The crew members planned to stay one more day in the lunar orbit to capture some images and videos.

Yankee Clipper splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on 24th November 1969 at 20:58 UTC. After the splashdown, the clipper was recovered by US ship Hornet (Navy aircraft carrier ship). The Apollo 12 manned mission was the only mission that landed near Surveyor 3 probe and after this mission, Surveyor 3 probe becomes the first probe visited by the NASA astronauts in the space mission history ever.


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